Asteismus (as-te-is’-mus): Polite or genteel mockery. More specifically, a figure of reply in which the answerer catches a certain word and throws it back to the first speaker with an unexpected twist. Less frequently, a witty use of allegory or comparison, such as when a literal and an allegorical meaning are both implied.
Paul R.: I would never collude with the Russians!
Adam S.: You better hope you’re right or you’ll never get out of prison.
Definition courtesy of “Silva Rhetoricae” (rhetoric.byu.edu)